One great example of a vicariant event that isolates populations is continental drift (Purves, Sadava, Orians, & Heller, 2004). Around 150 million years ago, as the super continent of Gondwana started to separate from Laurasia, the individual continents we know today started to drift apart. This continental drift was sited as one key factor that lead to the speciation of modern parrots (Schweizer, Seehausen, Hertwig, & 2011; Wright et al., 2008), and probably played a distinct role in the divergence of many other species.
Freeman, S. Herron, J. (2007). Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Schweizer, M., Seehausen, O., Hertwig, S. (2011). Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations. Journal of Biogeography, 38, 2176-2194. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x
Wright, T., Schirtzinger, E., Matsumoto, T., Eberhard, J., Graves, G., Sanchez, J., Capelli, S., Muller, H., Scharpegge, J., Chambers, G., Fleischer, R. (2008). A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25(10), 2141-2156. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msn160
IUCN. (2013). Lemurs of madagascar: a strategy for their conservation 2013-2016. Arlington: IUCN/Conservational International.